Contents
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2021 year, V. 7, №1
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Physiological genetics

Abstract
Abstract: The article presents an effective molecular genetic tool for assessing the purity of separate collection of samples of the dorsal and ventral parts of the hippocampus and its envelopes in foxes (Vulpes vulpes). This method is based on the determination of NR2F2, HSD11B1, and ALDH1A2 gene expression and is essential in the study of mechanisms of hippocampal-dependent behavior, stress, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
Key words: foxes; dorsal hippocampus; ventral hippocampus; hippocampal meninges.
For citation: Alexandrovich Yu.V., Makovka Yu.V., Meister L.V., Herbeck Yu.E. Assessing the correctness of dorsal and ventral hippocampal sampling in foxes. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(2):71-74. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-08 (in Russian)

Plant genetic resources

Abstract
Abstract: The conservation of crop genetic resources is mainly carried out ex situ. The highest numbers of flax accessions in the world (6243) are stored at the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR). The VIR flax collection was officially founded in 1922. It contains flax from all continents except Antarctica, from foreign Europe (1946 accessions) and Asia (1695), Russia (1696), North (301), South (248) Americas, Africa (220), Australia and Oceania (64). In total, the collection presents flax varieties from 83 countries. 10% of the collection are local forms, 40% are primitive selection samples, 24% are breeding material, 25% are developed varieties and lines, less than 1% is wild flaxes. The uniqueness of the VIR flax collection lies in the presence of more than 1900 accessions collected in 55 countries during more than 120 VIR expeditions. The replenishment of the collection can be divided into five stages related to historical events against which is took place. Before introduction the collection, all flax accessions undergo a comprehensive evaluation of the main morphological and economically valuable characters. Additional study of parts of the collection is aimed at determining the principles of creating and structuring the collection, assessing the influence of environmental conditions on the flax development, determining fiber quality by different methods, studying the seeds biochemical composition, genetic control of various flax traits. Conservation of genetic resources in a changing world is one of the primary tasks facing all states. VIR makes the greatest possible contribution to the solution to this task.
Key words: Linum usitatissimum; flax; linseed; plants genetic resources collection; gene bank; accessions; landraces; commercial variety; geographical origin.
For citation: Porokhovinova E.A., Kutuzova S.N., Pavlov A.V., Slobodkina A.A., Yakusheva T.V., Brutch N.B. Collection of flax genetic resources of the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(2):75-90. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-09 (in Russian)

Cell biology

Abstract
Abstract: In legumes, the color of seed coat is an important agronomic trait that affects dormancy, germination rate, and resistance to pathogens. In the current study, the black-coated seeds of spring common vetch cultivar Obskaya 16 were analyzed by qualitative tests to define the nature of pigmentation and were studied by microscopy to trace pigmentation development. It was shown that the black color of seeds in this cultivar is caused by blue anthocyanins starting to accumulate in the macrosclereids (epidermal cells) at the yellow pod developmental stage. Observed dark dots on the seed surface at this stage correspond to clusters of macrosclereids with blue pigment inside, while at the brown pod developmental stage, totally black seeds have all the macrosclereids with blue pigment. The chlorophyll and PsbA fluorescent signals which are characteristics of chloroplasts did not colocalize with blue pigment in macrosclereids at any developmental stages. Moreover, there was no correlation between blue pigment accumulation and plastid development and their functional activity. The data implies that chloroplasts do not involve in the blue pigment synthesis.
Key words: anthocyanins; light microscopy; macrosclereids; plastids; PsbA.
Acknowledgments: The cytological analysis was carried out at the Joint Access Center for Microscopy of Biological Objects supported by the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, project No. 0259-2021-0011.
For citation: Mursalimov S.R., Goncharova A.V., Glagoleva A.Yu., Shoeva O.Yu. Black seed color of the spring common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) cultivar Obskaya 16 is caused by blue anthocyanins accumulating in macrosclereids. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(2):91-95. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-10
I.N. Golubovskaya Vera V. Khvostova and origin of genetics of meiosis (in russian)
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Abstract
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to tell by my own experience how Professor Vera V. Khvostova organized at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics (Novosibirsk, Russia) in the early 1960-s laboratory of plant cytogenetics. How she has taught us young fellows how to comprehend this fascinated area of genetics. She supported everything new and helped to choose ours own path in science and life. I highlighted the first steps in the birth and coming into being of genetics of meiosis – a new direction in plant cytogenetics. It appeares to be possible only with the blessing and full support of Vera Khvostova. The article is illustrated with some examples of my studies of the cytogenetics of meiotic maize mutants at the level of transmission electron microscopy and molecular cytology with FISH and immunostaining with antibodies against synaptonemal complex proteins.
Key words: Vera Khvostova; meiosis in plants; homologous synapsis; synaptonemal complex; centromere; sister chromatids; homeologous genomes.
For citation: Golubovskaya I.N. Vera V. Khvostova and origin of genetics of meiosis. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(2):96-108. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-11 (in Russian)

Discussion articles

Abstract
Abstract: This article reviews data contradicting to the hypothesis suggesting that the mass migration of transposable elements (TEs) is a cause of the intraspecific hybrid dysgenesis (HD) in Drosophila melanogaster. In the vast majority of reports, the activity of TEs at HD is estimated indirectly via the size of ovaries, via phenotypic manifestations, via the level of transposase transcription or the activity of genetic constructs artificially inserted into the genome under the active promoter. A small amount of available estimates of TEs migration at HD suggests the rate of one-two transpositions of definite TE per genome per generation. TEs can be introduced into different genes; however, the phenotypic symptoms of HD are the same (at PM HD – underdevelopment of ovaries, at IR HD – embryo death) and for some pairs of lines are reproduced with 100% probability. An obligatory condition of the PM HD is the progeny cultivation at an elevated temperature; however, the activity of TEs is affected by temperature only when it causes by severe heat shock incompatible with survival of Drosophila. The degree of dysgenic symptoms is only weakly associated with the number of P elements. The presence of a full-sized P element in the genome does not guarantee the induction of HD: the overwhelming majority of natural lines contain it, but the Harwich reference line is usually used as a HD inductor. The contribution of TEs in HD induction may be connected with the change in the conformation of chromatin adjacent to its implantation site and, respectively, due to a change in the regulation of adjacent genes activity. However, taking into account the fact that the places of introduction of the TEs are usually random, and the type of HD manifestations are the same, further investigation of characteristics of the reference for HD lines is required. Hybrid dysgenesis has such serious developmental consequences that it cannot be explained by transposon activation alone. So, the true cause of the dysgenic events has yet to be clarified using modern methods.
Key words: hybrid dysgenesis; transposable elements; transposition rate; Drosophila melanogaster.
For citation: Zakharenko L.P. Doubts about the involvement of transposable elements in the induction of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(2):109-114. DOI 10.18699/ LettersVJ2021-7-12 (in Russian)