Contents
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2022 year, V. 8, №3
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Plant genetics

Abstract
Abstract: The genomic studies of the bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. and its relatives, intensively carried out during the last decade, have led to the accumulation of a large amount of data, including reference genomic sequences. At the same time, the development of new chromosome-specific cytogenetic and molecular markers, which can be used for chromosome identification, stay relevant. In this work, using BAC-FISH analysis and information on the bread wheat reference genomic sequence, we identified a new 646 bp tandem repeat located at the distal part of the short arm of the chromosome 5B. PCR screening of 218 accessions of polyploid and diploid Triticum and Aegilops species revealed the intraspecific polymorphism in the presence of this repeat, that makes it possible to use this sequence as a marker for analysis of hybrid material and chromosome rearrangements.
Key words: BAC_FISH; Triticum aestivum; Triticum dicoccoides; tandem repeat.
Acknowledgements: The work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Project FWNR-2022-0017.
For citation: Sergeeva E.M., Adonina I.G., Nesterov M.A., Salina E.A. Tandem repeat with unit length 646 bp marks the short arm of chromosome 5B in Triticum and Aegilops accessions and cultivars. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(3):237-248. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-13 (in Russian)

Plant breeding

Abstract
Abstract: The currently sown fine-staple cotton varieties are characterized by low yield, late ripening, and resistance to various Fusarium races wilt and other cotton pests. Breeders are faced with the task of providing cotton-textile clusters with raw materials from high-quality cotton fiber. This requires the creation of new fine-fiber varieties of cotton, combining early maturity, high yields with increased number of fruit branches, quantity, and weight of raw cotton in one box. These important elements ensure the yield of finestaple cotton. This article deals with the creation of the cotton variety Duru-Gavkhar-4 belonging to the genus Gossypium barbadense L. using a traditional synthetic breeding method. During many years of individual selection, a new promising fine-staple cotton variety Duru-Gavkhar-4 was created, which was obtained by crossing the Duru-Gavkhar variety with the 9647I variety. The new variety successfully passed the State Variety Test in 2020 with a result of 98 % in terms of varietal purity and uniformity. The fiber of the new cotton variety Duru-Gavkhar-4 belongs to type I. The vegetation period of the variety is 125–128 days, the yield is 33–38 сentner/ha, the fiber yield is 33–35 %, the draw weight of one box is 4.0–4.2 g, the fiber length is 39–41 mm, the weight of 1000 seeds is 118.2 g. In terms of quantitative and qualitative indicators, this variety dominates the control variety, that was Termez-31 (G. barbadense L.). The micronaire index is 3.8–4.1, which fully meets the requirements of the textile industry. The promising cotton variety Duru-Gavkhar-4 is currently being tested in the cotton-textile cluster of “KOVOTECH” in the Bagat district of the Khorezm region.
Key words: G. barbadense L.; cotton; variety; fiber; micronaire; qualitative indicators.
Acknowledgments: The products used for this research are the commonly and predominantly used products in our area of research and country. There is no conflict of interest between the authors and producers of the products because we do not intend to use these products as an avenue for any litigation but the advancement of knowledge. Also, the research was not funded by the producing company, rather it was funded by the personal efforts of the authors.
For citation: Mamaruziyev A.A., Karimov E.Y., Ahmedjanov A.N., Azimov A.A., Abdumavlanov O.A. Quantitative and qualitative indicators of the fiber of the new Duru-Gavkhar-4 cotton variety (Gossypium barbadense L.). Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(3):249-254. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-14

Animal genetics

Abstract
Abstract: To determine mutant allele frequencies, surveys of phenotypes of domestic cats were conducted in Kunashir Island and for comparison in Kholmsk City (Sakhalin Island). The genetic profiles were compared to those from other Far Eastern populations. The high proportion of Bobtails (65.2 %) in the Kunashir population distinguishes it from the rest of the Russian Federation. The population of island is more similar to other littoral populations of Far East of Russia than to such of Hokkaido Island (Japan). It is shown that initially in the formation of the genetic structure of the Kunashir Island population, the founder effect played an important role, and then the bottleneck effect.
Key words: mutant allele frequencies; population genetics; domestic cat; Kunashir Island.
For citation: Kholin S.K., Sundukov Y.N. Population genetics of the domestic cat (Felis catus L., 1758) of Kunashir Island. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(3):255-259. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-15 (in Russian)

History of cytogenetics

N.Sh. Bulatova Vavilov vector of the emergence of cytogenetics (in russian)
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Abstract
Abstract: The first national Forum on Genetic Resources (St. Petersburg, June 2022) attracted the attention of researchers in various fields to the study of biological resources. In this vein, cytogenetics stands out from the modern sections of the genetic direction with its attitude to bioresource issues. The work and history of cytogenetics in Russia had its own specifics in the exploratory period of early genetics in connection with the implementation of global plans for the study of plant resources. This happened during two brilliant decades of Russian genetics between 1920 and 1940 under the direct influence of N.I. Vavilov, following his discovery of the law of homological series in hereditary variation. The article provides evidence based on published materials from the scientific heritage of Academician N.I. Vavilov, depicting the circumstances of the birth of plant cytogenetics, but which have remained until now without due attention of historians of science. In Vavilov’s interpretation, cytogenetics acquired specific characteristics of origin (time, place, and purpose, possibly also a name), thanks to the V International Genetic Congress held in 1927. Not being a chromosome researcher, only a scientist with a broad horizon, like N.I. Vavilov, was able to assess the evolutionary potential of cytogenetic variation and, as the head of the Institute of Applied Botany and New Cultures in Leningrad (the future famous VIR), did everything for the appearance and international presentation of a new branch of genetics, cytogenetics, and its authors – a whole cohort of the Russian school of cytology.
Key words: genetical cytology; genetic resources; N.I. Vavilov heritage; Russian cytogeneticists; V International Genetic Congress.
For citation: Bulatova N.Sh. Vavilov vector of the emergence of cytogenetics. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(3):260-264. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-16 (in Russian)

Expeditions

Abstract
Abstract: After N.I. Vavilov returning home from the Abyssinian (Ethiopian) expedition in the summer of 1927, photographic material was organized in two albums. A huge amount of photos (two photoalbums titled “Abyssinia” and “Eritrea” contain about two thousands of them) is considered as important travel documents which complemented diaries and notebooks. Introducing the main themes of Vavilov’s photos, the author gives readers the opportunity to repeat the route of the expedition and see the same things as the naturalist did 95 years ago.
Key words: cultivated plant; biodiversity; history of applied botany; N.I. Vavilov; Ethiopian expedition.
For citation: Avrutskaya T.B. “My dream now is to be in Abyssinia”: Abyssinia and Eritrea in the photos of N.I. Vavilov. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(3):265-314. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-17 (in Russian)