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2022 year, V. 8, №4
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Plant breeding

А.А. Vypritskaya Potential reservoirs of sunflower pathogens (in russian)
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Abstract: The results of studying the possibility of weeds growing in the Tambov region being reservoirs of particularly harmful sunflower pathogens are presented. In crops, along the edges of fields, along roadsides, along forest belts and in other places, herbs with signs of damage of presumably fungal etiology were collected. Cyclachaena durnishnikolistnaya (Cyclachaena xanthiifolia Fresen.), umbrella hawk (Hieracium umbellatum L.), field osot (Sonchus arvensis L.), rough osot (Sonchus asper (L.) Hill), common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and common durnishnik (Xanthium strumarium L.) from the Asteraceae family, and the tilted shield (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) from the Amaranthaceae family were selected. The botanical characteristics of plants are briefly described. The symptoms of damage to their leaves, stems, inflorescences were studied and described. Mycological examination of fragments of all herbs, including sunflower, was carried out according to methods generally accepted in mycology and phytopathology, the species composition of pathogens parasitizing them was determined. It was noted that the most frequently affected plants were cyclachaena durnishnikolistnaya, yellow osot and common durnishnik, the most common pathogens were pathogens of sunflower phomopsis – Diaporthe helianthi Munt.-Cvetk., Mihaljc. & M. Petrov, verticillium (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) and false powdery mildew (Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. Et de Toni). The prevalence of P. halstedii was established by visual inspection of the habitats of the studied weeds. It has been shown that the symptoms of these and other pathogens of weeds are similar to those of sunflower. The pathogenic properties of the pathogens of weed spots to sunflower were studied in laboratory conditions, subject to the Koch triad. As a result of artificial infection of seeds and five-day-old sunflower seedlings with isolates of phytopathogenic fungi isolated from weeds, their ability to cause infection of the culture has been established. The re-isolation of fungi from sunflower organs, in all cases, showed their identity to isolates isolated from natural material. This circumstance allowed us to conclude about the possibility of the studied herbs being potential reservoirs of pathogens of cultivated sunflower.
Key words: artificial infection; pathogen; signs of lesion seedlings; infection reservoirs; weeds.
For citation: Vypritskaya А.А. Potential reservoirs of sunflower pathogens. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(4):321-331. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-19 (in Russian)
Abstract: Hybrids between inbred clones of blue wheatgrass Elytrigia intermedia (3–5 inbreeding generations) and varieties of intensive winter common wheat served as the basis for the development of six varieties of common winter wheat in the conditions of the reinfed forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia. In these varieties, the development of fourteen quantitative traits was studied over seven life cycles. Qualitatively, the density of productive stems and, to a somewhat lesser extent, the density of plants during harvesting were most closely related with yield, while between the yield and the productivity of individual plants negative relationships were observed. One of the probable reasons for this is the limited resources (moisture and nutrients) per plant/productive stem. In the process of breeding new varieties of this group, there was an increase in yield due to a reduction in the density of plants/stems during harvesting and an increase in the productivity of individual plants. That is, the selection for increasing the yield was accompanied by a decrease in the contribution of the first group of traits to it and an increase in the contribution of the second. Probably, in the future, the selection of varieties adapted to the conditions of the region will follow this trend. Only about a third of the plants that survived the winter were preserved for harvesting. The rest died, presumably, at the stage of spring tillering. Part of the resources (moisture and nutrients), which are extremely necessary for the formation of the crop by the remaining plants in the conditions of rein-fed (especially in dry years), was spent on the metabolism of plants lost in the spring. The conservation of these resources could increase the yield and drought tolerance of new varieties. This can probably be achieved by reducing the density of sown seeds with increased germination and winter hardiness in both arid and cloudy rainy autumn (excessive moisture). This will reduce the density of plants that survive after wintering, and therefore reduce the proportion of plants lost in the spring, saving resources for plants that reach maturity. The same goal will also be promoted by reducing the height of plants and increasing the efficiency of their use of resources (for example, through breeding on soils with low fertility). It is obvious that the solution of these problems will contribute to the study of the mechanism that causes the death of some overwintering plants in the spring.
Key words: winter hardiness; drought resistance; rein-fed.
For citation: Kozlov V.E., Ponomarenko V.I., Musinov K.K., Surnachev A.S. Seven-year dynamics of quantitative characteristics of winter common wheat varieties in the rein-fed forest-steppe of Western Siberia environments. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(4):332-343. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-20 (in Russian)


Abstract: For expression in the yeast Komagataella phaffii, the Thermothielavioides terrestris mannanase gene was cloned. This gene was cloned into the pPZL plasmid, the resulting constructs were transformed into Escherichia coli XLblue cells, and clones carrying constructs with the Thermothielavioides terrestris mannanase gene were screened by PCR. The resulting construct was sequenced and transformed into the K. phaffii T07. It was shown that we introduced the mannanase_Thermothielavioides_terrestris gene sequence into the AOX1 promoter region in the amount of one copy into the fourth chromosome of the genome of the specially selected clone No. 42. The ZeoR antibiotic resistance genes are absent in the selected clone No. 42. Thus, clone No. 42 can be used in industry as a strain producing the enzyme mannanase. The enzyme was produced and its properties were studied. An enzyme purification procedure was developed to obtain enzyme preparations. Samples of recombinant enzymes were developed. The study of the obtained preparation of β-mannanase showed that the optimum pH of β-mannanase is 2.5–6.0. The resulting enzyme preparation is thermostable, showing high activity up to 80 °C. The temperature optimum is 50 and 70 °C.
Key words: mannanase; Komagataella phaffii; heterologous expression; enzyme; producer strain.
Acknowledgements: The study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation as a part of the comprehensive project on high-tech industry “Creation of high-tech production of high-quality plant food proteins” (The agreement on the provision of subsidies from the federal budget for the development of cooperation of a state scientific institution and organization the real sector of the economy in order to implement a comprehensive project for the creation of high-tech industry No. 075-11-2020- 036 from 15.12.2020) in the framework of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 9, 2010 No. 218 on the basis of the ICG SB RAS. The authors are grateful to the BRC “Collection of Biotechnological Microorganisms as a Source of Novel Promising Objects for Biotechnology and Bioengineering” of the Federal Research Center ICG SB RAS, grant number FWNR-2022-0022.
For citation: Zadorozhny A.V., Pavlova Е.Yu., Ushakov V.S., Bogacheva N.V., Shlyakhtun V.N., Rozanov A.S., Voskoboev M.E., Korzhuk А.V., Novikova D.S., Bannikova S.V., Mescheryakova I.А., Vasilieva А.R., Bryanskaya А.V., Bochkov D.V., Shipova А.А., Goryachkovskaya T.N., Peltek S.E. Heterologous expression of the Thermothielavioides terrestris mannanase gene in the Komagataella phaffii genome. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(4):344-351. DOI 10.18699/ LettersVJ-2022-8-21 (in Russian)


Abstract: November 22, 2022 turns the 80th anniversary of the birth of an outstanding scientist Lev A. Zhivotovsky, Professor, Dr. Sci. (Biology), PhD of Physics and Mathematics, Honored Scientist of Russia, Laureate of the Federal Prize of the Russian Federation, Laureate of I.I. Schmalhausen Prize in evolutionary biology RAS. The review considers his multifaceted activities: all publications are grouped into 16 major sections. In each of them the details of the biography and scientific activities of the scientist are viewed.
Key words: Lev A. Zhivotovsky; population genetics; genetics; mathematical biology; evolution; DNA identification; ecogeographic units; animals; plants.
For citation: Odintsova T.I., Pukhalskyi V.A., Stolpovsky Yu.A., Kudryavtsev A.M. Outstanding scientists of Russia. Professor Lev A. Zhivotovsky. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(4):352-371. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-22 (in Russian)


M.N. Islamov, L.A. Smirnova, A.N. Berezkin, A.M. Malko Legal regulation of seed production (in Russian)
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Abstract: Basic science (genetics, genetic engineering, biotechnology, etc.) in itself has little chance of becoming significant for the consumer. The connecting link between fundamental science and agricultural industry is applied developments, including selection achievements – varieties (hybrids) and technologies for their cultivation. Only with the help of a variety (hybrid) is it possible to successfully enter the agricultural production market. According to scientists, variety and technology provide up to 40–50 % yield increase. At the same time, the success of breeding is realized only through a well-established system of seed production, built on a legal basis, including the observance of the rights of the patent holder. Any person, before starting activity on seed production of a protected variety, must obtain from the patent holder a license to carry out the following actions with seeds of a protected selection achievement: production, bringing to sowing conditions for subsequent propagation, sale offer, sale and other types of marketing, export from the territory of the Russian Federation, import into the territory of the Russian Federation, storage for the purposes listed above. The introduction into circulation of seeds of agricultural plants of new varieties (hybrids) should be preceded by a test for economically useful traits and properties and the inclusion of information about them in the State Register of Varieties and Hybrids approved for use (hereinafter referred to as the State Register), as well as the determination of indicators of varietal and sowing (planting) qualities of these seeds. At the same time, in the production of seeds of agricultural plants, the prohibitions and restrictions established by the legislation in the field of seed production must be observed, including in terms of the use in the production of seeds of agricultural plants of seeds containing genetically modified organisms, infected and (or) contaminated with quarantine objects, varieties (hybrids) included in the list of genera and species of agricultural plants approved by the Government of the Russian Federation, the production and cultivation of which is aimed at ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation, the varieties and hybrids of which are subject to inclusion in the State Register (hereinafter referred to as the List of Genera and Species), and indicators of varietal and sowing (planting) qualities of which do not meet the requirements established by the requirements.
Key words: variety; seeds; seed production; law, legislation; tests; State Register; turnover; mandatory requirements; prohibitions and restrictions; control (supervision).
For citation: Islamov M.N., Smirnova L.A., Berezkin A.N., Malko A.M. Legal regulation of seed production. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(4):372-378. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-23 (in Russian)


For citation: Kholin S.K., Sundukov Y.N. Correction to “Population genetics of the domestic cat (Felis catus L., 1758) of Kunashir Island”. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2022;8(4):379. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2022-8-24 (in Russian)