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2023 year, V. 9, №1
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Animal genetics

Abstract: Animal husbandry is an important food resource for residents of territories with cold climates, such as Northern Eurasia and high-altitude regions, where agricultural opportunities are extremely limited. In Russia, the land area of the Arctic zone is more than 4.7 million square kilometers, which is home to about 2.5 million people. Cold stress is a critical problem in domestic livestock production, due to its harmful effects on feed consumption, milk production, growth rate and reproductive function of cattle. Information on molecular DNA markers can be used to conduct marker-assisted and genomic selection of livestock for cold tolerance. The aim of the study was to identify, based on the available literature, molecular markers in potential candidate genes associated with cold adaptation in various breeds of cattle for further research, as well as for use in marker-assisted and genomic selection. As a result of studying literature on the analysis of the association of individual SNPs, genome-wide association analysis, whole genome sequencing of animals with extreme phenotypes, searching for signatures of selection in the genome, we described 25 SNPs (of which eight led to non-synonymous amino acid substitutions) in 18 candidate genes (HSP70, GRIA4, DDX23, MAATS1, COX17, THBS1, CCL5, UPK1B, PLA1A, NR1I2, ATF1, PRKAG1, IFNGR1, PPT1, NRAP, CD36, FGF5, PRDM16) significantly associated with cold tolerance in six cattle breeds (Sanhe, Holstein, Hereford, Kazakh Whiteheaded, Yakut, Yanbian). The inclusion of information on molecular markers of cattle in breeding programs will contribute to the creation of new cold-tolerant cattle breeds and increase the efficiency of traditional breeding methods.
Key words: cattle; local breed; cold climate, adaptation; genome; molecular marker; association; genome-wide association study; signatures of selection; genomic selection; comparative genomic.
For citation: Yudin N.S., Igoshin A.V., Larkin D.M. Molecular markers of adaptation to the cold climate in cattle. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(1):5-14. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-02 (in Russian)

Plant breeding

Abstract: In the Novosibirsk region, the disease of covered smut of oats caused by the pathogen Ustilago kolleri Wille is widespread. Between 2013 and 2022 studies were carried out to determine the racial differentiation of the population of the causative agent of covered smut of oats. The work was carried out on an artificial infectious background of the phytopathological site of the Plant Gene Pool Laboratory of SibNIIRS, a branch of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, using the generally accepted Russian set of differentiator varieties. An analysis of the experimental data showed that the Novosibirsk population of U. kolleri does not differentiate into races. Varietal differentiators exhibit a type of response that does not correlate with the known key for determining races. It was revealed that since 2020 there have been changes in the virulence of the U. kolleri population. The highly resistant cultivars Monarch, Fulghum, Sig and Orion have been heavily attacked by the pathogen since 2020. Varieties Black Diamond, Black Mesdag and Lgovsky 1026 showed stable resistance to the pathogen of covered smut over all the years of observations. The difference of the Novosibirsk population of the fungus in terms of virulence from the populations of the Omsk Region and Altai Territory was noted.
Key words: seed oats; virulence; population; dusty smut; covered smut; racial composition; differentiator varieties; pathogen; spores; variety; immunity.
Acknowledgements: The work was supported by the budget project of the ICG SB RAS No. FWNR-2022-0018.
For citation: Behtold N.P., Orlova E.A., Grigoriev Yu.N. Virulence of the pathogen of covered smut of oats Ustilago kolleri in the Novosibirsk region. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(1):15-20. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-03 (in Russian)
Abstract: Observed climate changes lead to variations in hydrothermal conditions, and also affect the development of plants and the
spread and manifestation of diseases. To date, the main task of the breeder is to create varieties that are resistant to stress factors and capable of producing a high and stable yield. The paper presents the results of assessing the resistance of common wheat from the KASIB-22 nursery to the main leaf pathogens and head smut. The purpose of the study is the immunological monitoring of varieties and lines of Russian and Kazakh selection in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of the Ob region. The object of research was 44 samples of wheat obtained from various regions of Russia and Kazakhstan as part of the KASIB shuttle breeding program. Field observations in 2021–2022 made it possible to identify genotypes with high resistance to local populations of pathogens of leaf rust, loose smut and powdery mildew. Complex resistance to these pathogens is possessed at Line Pt-235, Line Pt-311, Lutescens 1462, Lutescens 1486, Lutescens 1489, Lutescens 76-17. According to the results of the correlation analysis, a strong negative relationship was noted between the yield and the development of leaf pathogens. The year 2021 was more favorable for the formation of high yields. Yields at the level of 51.0 c/ha and above were obtained in Novosibirskaya 18, Line Pt-311, KS 60/09-9 and Lutescens 71/10-4 genotypes. In 2022, the maximum yield was 46.9 c/ha (Lutescens 1486). The following breeding lines were noted as highly productive and having high and medium resistance to leaf rust, powdery mildew and loose smut: Line Pt-311 (Kurgan Research Institute of Agriculture), Lutescens 1462, Lutescens 1486, Line 1616ae14 (Samara Research Institute of Agriculture), Lutescens 1356 (Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS). Each of the selected lines is of practical value for breeding.
Key words: common wheat; powdery mildew; leaf rust; loose smut; resistance.
For citation: Ageeva E.V., Kapko T.N., Sovetov V.V. Study of varieties and lines of wheat in the KASIB-22 nursery for resistance to certain diseases. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(1):21-29. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-04 (in Russian)

New Russian commercial cultivars

Abstract: Spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main cereal crop of the West Siberian region of the Russian Federation. The article describes new commercial cultivars of spring common wheat Baganochka. The Baganochka has been included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements approved for use in the West Siberian (10th) region since 2023. The advantages of the new cultivars are high yield, vitreousness, resistance to environmental conditions, reference to strong grain wheat.
Key words: breeding; new commercial cultivar; spring common wheat; Baganochka; productivity.
Acknowledgements: The work was supported by the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, project No. FWNR-2022-0017.
For citation: Nemtsev B.F., Nemtsev A.B., Poluydina R.I., Kurkova S.V. New cultivar of spring common wheat Baganochka. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(1):30-34. DOI 10.18699/
LettersVJ-2023-9-05 (in Russian)

Letters to the Editor

For citation: : Loskutov I.G. Review of Olga A. Lyapunova’s monograph “Intraspecific diversity of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)”. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(1):35-37. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-06 (in Russian)