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Abstract: One of the scientific directions at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in the second half of the 20th century was the study of the processes occurring during interspecific hybridization. The main goal of distant hybridization is to use the potential of wild and cultivated wheat relatives for the widening of genetic diversity of agronomically important traits. Within the framework of this task, introgression lines of common wheat with the genetic material of the tetraploid species Triticum timopheevii were created. The purpose of development of these lines was to transfer effective fungal disease resistance genes into the gene pool of cultivated varieties of spring bread wheat. Currently, the collection includes 100 lines obtained on the basis of five varieties of bread wheat (Saratovskaya 29, Skala, Irtyshanka 10, Tсelinnaya 20, and Novosibirskaya 67). Using the lines, a number of fundamental and applied studies were carried out, such as studying the processes of stabilization of the hybrid genome, investigation of the nature of chromosome substitutions and translocations, mapping genes for resistance to leaf and stem rust pathogens, creating donors for leaf rust resistance loci, and studying lines on grain quality traits. This review briefly describes the history of the creation of T. aestivum/T. timopheevii introgression lines and the main results obtained with their use.
Key words: introgression lines T. aestivum/T. timopheevii; cytological stability; resistance genes; fungal diseases; quality traits; microelements.
For citation: Leonova I.N., Shumny V.K. Development and study of the common wheat introgression lines obtained with the participation of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(3):111-116. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-14 (in Russian)
Acknowledgements: The work was carried out within the framework of the budget project No. FWNR-2022-0017. The study of microelements in the grain of introgression lines was done with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 23-16- 00041, https://rscf.ru/project/23-16-00041/).
Abstract: The main task of common wheat breeding is to expand its diversity in terms of genes that determine agronomically significant traits. Wheat-related cultivated and wild cereals are an important source of genetic diversity. Of considerable interest are synthetic amphiploids, which combine the genetic potential of several species at once. Synthetic hexaploid wheats obtained by crossing various tetraploid wheats (2n = 4х = 28, AABB) with Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2х = 14, DD) or by successively crossing diploid donors of A, B and D genomes are most applicable in the breeding of common wheat. We studied the karyotype and phenotypic features of line 1102 obtained by crossing hexaploid triticale (2n = 6х = 42, BBAARR) and synthetic wheat (2n = 6х = 42, AADDSS) in this work. An experiment on growing with and without vernalization, as well as an analysis of the allelic composition of the VRN-1 gene, made it possible to establish the spring habit of line 1102 plants. Cytogenetic analysis using fluorescent hybridization in situ showed that the karyotype of the line does not differ from the common wheat karyotype (BBAADD). Comparative analysis of grain shape parameters in 103 cultivars and lines of spring hexaploid wheat using the SeedCounter.2.3 program showed that line 1102 differs significantly from other samples. In addition to the spherical shape of the grain, line 1102 has a compact awned spike, according to the “plant height” trait it can be attributed to dwarf or even stunted forms. The cytological stability of the line 1102 hexaploid genome and a number of distinctive phenotypic features make it possible to recommend it as a donor of the “short stem” and “spherical grain” traits for the breeding of common wheat.
Key words: synthetic hexaploid wheat; sphaerococcoid wheat; short-stem wheat; phenotyping; karyotyping; FISH; GISH.
For citation: Adonina I.G., Zorina M.V., Mehdiyeva S.P., Leonova I.N., Komyshev E.G., Timonova E.M., Salina E.A. Characteristics of the synthetic line of wheat – a potential source of agronomically valuable traits. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(3):117-125. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-15 (in Russian)
Acknowledgements: The work was supported by the Kurchatov Genomic Center of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Agreement No. 075-15-2019-1662). The plants were grown at the Plant Reproduction Center for Collective Use of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in the field with the support of the budget project No. FWNR-2022-0017.
Abstract: In this article are reported the results of studies of 2021 relevant to wheat-rye amphiploids (WRA), or triticale, created in various ways: crossing common wheat with rye and then doubling the number of chromosomes (octoploid (8x) triticale 8x TDA and 8x TDE), selection of divergent hexaploid (6x) triticale forms found in 8x triticale populations, hybridization of 8x triticale with 6x WRA, three-stage crossing of three species (wheat × rye × 6x WRA), hybridization of emmer with 6x WRA and intraspecific hybridization of 6x WRA. The purpose of the work is to study five traits of spring and facultative forms of triticale created by different methods in SibNIIRS, branch of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Octoploid wheat-rye forms are significantly inferior to hexaploid ones in terms of spike density, volume grain weight and productivity. However, due to cytogenetic instability, 8x WRAs are sources of divergent hexaploid triticales, that carry selectively valuable traits. Five studied divergent genotypes of 6x triticale exceeded the original 8x triticale families in terms of the studied traits and did not yield to the standard. One of them the 6x TDA originated from the 8x TDA octoploid family was also characterized by a short interphase period “shoots–earing”, which did not exceed 43 days. Two hexaploid forms created by crossing emmer with triticale are characterized by the same index of this trait as well as a good volume grain weight, reaching 760 g/L. The shortest interphase period “shoots–earing”, 41 days, was noted in the standard variety Timur as well as in the breeding forms DT 182 and DT 24, made with the participation of emmer and triticale. They also have the shortest spike. Octoploid forms of triticale spend more time from germination to heading – from 63 to 73 days compared to hexaploid ones. Four facultative triticales have this long period too, exceeding 62 days. Two of these WRA that were obtained from the varieties made on the basis of three-species crosses have higher grain productivity than the standard. The breeding sample 6x Siars 258 made by intraspecific hybridization showed not only good volume grain weight, but also the highest grain productivity in the field test, reaching 689 ± 24 g.
Key words: hexaploidy; octoploid; triticale; hybrid; trait.
For citation: Stepochkin P.I. Some peculiarities of triticale made by different ways. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(3):126-131. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-16 (in Russian)
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, budget project No. FWNR-2022-0018.
Abstract: December 18, 2023 marks the 125th anniversary of the birth of an outstanding soviet plant-breeder, botanist, geneticist, full member of Academy of Sciences of USSR and V.I. Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences Nikolai V. Tsitsin. He is one from a galaxy of brilliant soviet scientists who used distant hybridization to get new crops and commercial cultivars. Along with I.V. Michurin and G.D. Karpechenko he made the foundations of the theory of plant distant hybridization and together with G.K. Meister, V.E. Pisarev, A.I. Derzhavin, S.M. Verushkin, V.N. Lebedev, A.F. Shulyndin and other our plant breeders he was at the origin of this theory’s practical application to obtain new important crops. Research works by N.V. Tsitsin, by his followers and co-workers allowed to get new valuable interspecific and intergeneric hybrids that set the priority of Russia in this sphere. First in the world he got commercial cultivars of wheat-wheatgrass hybrids, the variety of tetraploid branch rye and unique intergeneric hybrid, perennial wheat, new handmade species named ×Trititrigia cziczinii Tzvelev (syn. Triticum ×agropyrotriticum Cicin). In December, 1938 after three years since the start of building of All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (now Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy, Moscow) Nikolai V. Tsitsin was appointed director of it. Three years later the Exhibition was successfully opened. He also brought into being (it was a second attempt) academician Botanical Garden in Moscow. Also at various times he was a director of Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Crops (Omsk), of Zonal Institute of crops of Non-Chernozem area (Nemchinovka, Odintsovo, Russia), was the head of the Laboratory of distant hybridization of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Moscow, then Oktyabrskoe, Istrinsky district). He also took part in reopening of organized in Leningrad by V.V. Talanov and N.I. Vavilov in all-Union Institute of Plant Industry “State Test System” (“State Commission for Breeding Achievements Test and Protection USSR”) after its resubordination of the Ministry of Agriculture and relocation to Moscow. N.V. Tsitsin was a president of Genetic International Congress (1978, Moscow) and the chairman of the Council of the Botanical gardens of USSR.
Key words: N.V. Tsitsin; distant hybridization; wheat-wheatgrass hybrids; Trititrigia cziczinii.
For citation: Goncharov N.P. From wheatgrass-wheat and pea-acacia hybrids to perennial wheat: to the anniversary of Academician Nikolai V. Tsitsin. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(3):132-161. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-17 (in Russian)
Acknowledgements: The author expresses his gratitude to PhD (Biol.) N.Yu. Stepanova (Herbarium of the State Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) for pointing out relevant literature, to the library staff of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS L.N. Antimony and T.V. Pivovarova for help, to M.N. Shashkina (State Archives of the Saratov Region) and head library of the Federal Agrarian Research Center of the South-East E.I. Zhantlieva for the information about S.M. Verushkin. The work was supported by the budget project of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS FWNR-2022-0017.
Abstract: The history of modern systematics of the genus Triticum L. is given. It became possible to study the diversity of wheat species. The use of molecular-biological, genetic and cytogenetic methods has brought triticologists insignificantly closer to the producing of a natural classification of the genus and turned out to be not such a simple task, since scientists still cannot agree on its scope. By the present time, the method of computer phenotyping becomes an important method for studying biodiversity and taxonomy of wheat, which allows to automate the process of determining the species affiliation of the studied specimens. The retrospective study of the systematics of the genus Triticum is reviewed and the phylogeny of its species is discussed; the complete (Russian) and reduced (Western) systems of the genus are compared.
Key words: Triticum L.; systematics; taxonomy; classification; phylogeny; computer phenotyping.
For citation: Kruchinina Y.V. Systematics of the genus Triticum L.: history of study and vector of development. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(3):162-171. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-18 (in Russian)
Acknowledgments: The author is grateful to Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences N.P. Goncharov for writing the article. Studies on systematics, taxonomy and molecular methods were supported by the budget project RNF 22-16-20026 and Goverment of the Novosibirsk region. Studies on phenotyping were supported by the budget project FWNR 2022-0007.