Contents
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2024 year, V. 10, №1
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Human genetics

Abstract
Abstract: Familial hypercholesterolaemia is an inherited monogenic disorder that leads to atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Despite its high incidence (1 in 250 people for the heterozygous form, up to 1 in 300,000 to 1 million people for the homozygous form) and global public health concern, the effectiveness of patient care remains extremely low. According the European Atherosclerosis Society 2022 Report, less than 3 % of patients worldwide achieve targeted low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during FH treatment. Most cases of hypercholesterolaemia are caused by pathogenic allelic variants in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, half of which are class II mutations that cause misfolding of the LDLR protein, leading to impaired transport to the cell surface and accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum. This review provides an update on familial hypercholesterolemia modelling and genetic correction of the disease.
Key words: familial hypercholesterolemia; atherosclerosis; low density lipoprotein receptor; cell models; induced pluripotent stem cells; endothelium.
For citation: Zakharova I.S., Shevchenko A.I., Zakian S.M. Familial hypercholesterolemia: current insight and challenges in its modelling. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):5-14. DOI 10.18699/ letvjgb-2024-10-2 (in Russian)
Funding: The work was carried out with financial support from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 21-15-00065).

Plant breeding

Abstract
Abstract: Currently, the issues of documenting breeding achievements are becoming particularly relevant. The important component of the correct documentation of cultivars are nomenclatural standards. According to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, the nomenclatural standard is considered to be a separate entity, preferably a herbarium specimen that most fully reflects the typical taxonomic characteristics of the cultivar. N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), together with Russian breeders, is working to create a collection of nomenclatural standards of Russian cultivars. This article publishes the nomenclatural standards of cultivars mandarin breeding by the Subtropical Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences ‘Akademicheskij (WIR-98544), ‘Knyaz` Vladimir’ (WIR-98545), ‘Krasnodarskij 83’ (WIR-98546), ‘Millennium 1’ (WIR-98547), ‘Pioner 80’ (WIR-98549), ‘Solnechnyj’ (WIR-98550), ‘Sochinskij 23’ (WIR-98555), ‘Chernomorskij’ (WIR-98559). Herbarium samples representing the most typical taxonomic and economically valuable characteristics of varieties are assigned as nomenclatural standards. Plant material for herbarium specimens was collected in the flowering and fruiting phase in the collection of the author organization. The herbarium label indicates: the herbarium number of the sample in the VIR Herbarium, the Latin name of the species, the name of the cultivar, the origin (the name of the organization in which the cultivar was created), the place of reproduction (where the herbarized plant was grown), the dates of collection, the names of collectors. Each herbarium sample is supplemented with photos of flowers and berries. The created nomenclatural standards can be used as a cultivar identification control and as a carrier of authenticity of genetic information of a breeding achievement.
Key words: herbarium sample; Citrus reticulata Blanco; Herbarium of cultivated plants of the world, their wild relatives and weeds (WIR).
For citation: Bagmet L.V., Kulyan R.V. Mandarin cultivar`s nomenclatural standards of breeding of Subtropical Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):15-28. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-3 (in Russian)
Funding: The work was financially supported by the project of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation “National network collection of plant genetic resources for effective scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation in the field of genetic technologies”, agreement No. 075-15-2021-1050 dated September 28, 2021.
Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the reviewers for their review of this paper.
Abstract
Abstract: he technology of production of doubled haploids (DH) is an effective tool for obtaining homozygous lines in onions, which are difficult to obtain by self-pollination due to their two-year breeding cycle, high heterozygosity and severe inbred depression. The successful production and use of DH lines in breeding still lags far behind the expectations of breeders due to the low efficiency of gynogenesis in this species. The main obstacles to success are: high differences in the responsiveness of donor materials to the induction of gynogenesis, difficulties arising in the process of chromosome doubling and low survival of dihaploid lines in general, due to the expression of lethal genes in them. The aim of the work was to characterize onion hybrids obtained on the basis of doubled hybrids according to the main economically valuable characteristics: the shape and weight of the bulb, color, thickness and adhesion of dry scales, sugar content, yield, degree of preservation, defeat of fusarium rot. Doubled onion haploids were obtained by gynogenesis on the basis of the biotechnology laboratory of the Gavrish Breeding Center based on the methodological recommendations of S.G. Monakhos et al. (2014). Hybrids obtained on the basis of onion DH lines were planted in the open ground and grown according to the technology generally accepted for the zone at the site of the Gavrish breeding center (Krymsk, Krasnodar Territory). In order to select highly effective hybrid combinations and create F1 hybrids, the obtained and selected DH lines were included in hybridization with the best sterile lines. Further, the resulting hybrid combinations were compared with the standard generally accepted for the zone. In the course of the study, it was found that hybrids based on DH lines cannot compete with the standard in terms of yield and bulb size, the yield of all hybrids did not significantly exceed the standard, and the bulb weight was more than 1.5 times lower. However, hybrid combinations based on DH lines are more aligned in bulb weight and bulb shape.
Key words: onion; Allium cepa L.; DH-technologies; gynogenesis; heterosis hybrids; variety testing; coefficient of variation.
For citation: Cherednichenko E.A., Gavrish S.F., Pershin A.F., Budylin M.V. Evaluation of the main economically valuable characteristics of onion hybrids (Allium cepa L.) obtained on the basis of doubled haploids. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):29-34. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-4 (in Russian)
Abstract
Abstract: Research on vegetable plants in the Central Siberian Botanical Garden (CSBG) began with its organization in 1946 under the leadership of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Prof. Lydia Lvovna Eremenko. In the 1940–1950s, she carried out research related to the problem of heterogeneity of the morphological structure of populations of vegetable crop varieties, different quality of shoots, flowers and seeds depending on environmental conditions. From 1953 to 1986 the head of the group of vegetable plants was Ph.D. L.P. Tropina. The direction of introduction and comprehensive study of the biological characteristics of vegetable plants in Siberia has become one of the main areas of research. When studying cold resistance, the appearance of structural changes in chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations, including doubling of chromosome sets, was noted. A method of pre-sowing seed hardening was developed, which manifests itself in accelerated growth, development and increased productivity. Since the 1970s, work on the study and introduction of rhizomatous onion species began at CSBG. As a result of these works, an updated list of their species in the temperate zone of the USSR was compiled, numbering 116 species classified into 12 sections. Variants of the small life cycle and rhythms of shoot morphogenesis, the structure of coenopopulations, as well as the main paths of evolution of life forms within the subgenus Rhiziridium of the genus Allium were studied. In the 1990s, methods were first developed for studying and modeling the ecological stability of tomato forms using the assessment of quantitative traits in the mature male gametophyte phase on media with the synthetic osmotic PEG6000 and in the sporophytic generation. Since the mid-1980s crosses were carried out in more than 240 combinations of cultivated tomato with 13 wild species and varieties, with the selection of forms resistant to diseases and low temperatures. In the 2000s 19 cultivars of tomato, 7 − sweet pepper and one F1 eggplant hybrid were bred and included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements (SRBA). For the first time in the Russian Federation, cultivars of asparagus vigna, kiwano, bitter melon and wax gourd are included in the SRBA. A scheme for assessing the ecological stability of tomato accessions using quantitative traits in the mature male gametophyte phase and in the sporophytic generation was developed, and the methodological basis for the introduction of heat-loving crops in Siberia was formulated.
Key words: Central Siberian Botanical Garden; vegetable plants; south of Western Siberia; introduction; breeding.
For citation: Fotev Yu.V. History of vegetable plant research in the Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS. Past, present and future. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):35-53. DOI 10.18699/ letvjgb-2024-10-5 (in Russian)
Funding: The work was supported by the budget project of the Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS AAAA-A21-121011290027-6.
Acknowledgments: The author expresses gratitude to N.P. Goncharov for valuable advice in preparing the manuscript of the article.
Abstract
Abstract: The article provides a description of the life path, scientific, organizational, teaching work and main scientific achievements of outstanding scientist Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences P.L. Goncharov (1929–2016). He is a recognized scientist in the field of breeding and seed production.
Key words: Full Member of the Russian Аcademy of Sciences P.L. Goncharov; Siberian Branch of the Russian Agricultural Academy of Sciences; agricultural science; plant breeding; seed production; crops; commercial cultivars.
For citation: Goncharov N.P. Outstanding scientists of Russia. Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Pyotr L. Goncharov. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):54-73. DOI 10.18699/ letvjgb-2024-10-6 (in Russian)
Funding: The work was supported by the budget project of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, FWNR-2022-0017.

Plant genetics

Abstract
Abstract: On February 12, 2024, Vladimir K. Shumny, an outstanding Soviet and Russian scientist, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, turned 90 years old. V.K. Shumny is a well-known scientist in the field of plant genetics and the genetic basis of plant breeding, a major organizer of biological science in Siberia. This article briefly describes the main scientific directions and results obtained in the Department of Plant Genetics of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, obtained under the leadership of V.K. Shumny.
Key words: plant genetics; distant hybridization; genetic engineering; Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences V.K. Shumny.
For citation: Kochetov A.V., Leonova I.N., Pershina L.A., Zakharov I.K., Khlestkina E.K., Salina E.A., Goncharov N.P. Outstanding scientists of Russia. Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir K. Shumny. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):74-81. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-7 (in Russian)
Funding: The work was carried out within the framework of the budget project of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, No. FWNR-2022-0017.

New Russian commercial cultivars

K.K. Musinov, V.E. Kozlov, A.S. Surnachev A new cultivar of common winter wheat –Pamyati Chekurova
Скачано: 10, размер: 1.1 MB, дата: 28 Mar. 2024
Abstract
Abstract: In a continental climate, the cultivar is an important indicator of crop stability. The article describes the characteristics of a new cultivar of common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Pamyati Chekurova according to economically valuable traits. The cultivar has been included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements approved for use in the West Siberian region since 2023. The research was carried out in the Novosibirsk region in 2016–2022. The standard was the zoned cultivar Novosibirskaya 40. The cultivar Pamyati Chekurova has a high potential productivity. It is characterized by increased winter hardiness and resistance to lodging due to its lowstem, large grain and high tillering coefficient. Also the cultivar Pamyati Chekurova is comparable to valuable wheat in baking qualities.
Key words: common winter wheat; commercial cultivars; breeding; yield; winter hardiness.
For citation: Musinov K.K., Kozlov V.E., Surnachev A.S. A new cultivar of common winter wheat – Pamyati Chekurova. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(1):82-86. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-8 (in Russian)
Funding: The work was supported by the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, budget project No. FWNR-2022-0018.