Contents
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PVJ 10 2 En
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Human genetics

Abstract
Abstract: Eisenia altaica (Perel, 1968) is one of the local endemics of Altai. It is found in the north of the Altai Republic in the valley of
the river Katun. In this study, we obtained samples of E. altaica from the south of the Altai Krai. We sequenced the DNA of the E. altaica sample using Illumina and assembled and analyzed its mitochondrial genome. The genome was assembled as a 15,248-bp contig.
It contained a set of genes typical for earthworms, encoding proteins, ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs. All genes were located on the same DNA strand. AT composition of the genome (except for the AT tract) was 62.7 %. The protein-coding genes nd4 and nd4l overlapped by 7 base pairs. The analysis revealed that the ATG codon is the only start codon. Six protein-coding genes (cox1, atp8,
cox3, nd6, nd1, nd2) had an abbreviated stop codon (T’). Phylogenetic analysis carried out for mitochondrial genomes of the species of the genus Eisenia showed that the E. altaica and E. tracta form a sister group to one of the branches of the E. nordenskioldi species complex (E. nordenskioldi sensu stricto). This indicates the need for fragmentation of the E. nordenskioldi complex. Also, the affinity of the Altai endemics to the E. nordenskioldi complex may indicate that the center of speciation of the Siberian branch of the genus Eisenia is located in Altai. The mtDNA control region contains an AT microsatellite tract longer than 150 bp, which could not be completely assembled. We searched for microsatellites in the mitochondrial genomes of other earthworm species and found that AT microsatellites occurs in control regions of other many earthworm species belonging to different genera, and families, whereas other microsatellites were not found there. This indicates a special role for this type of repeat in the functioning of control regions.
Key words: Eisenia altaica; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny; control region.
For citation:
Leonov P.A., Yurlova G.V., Poluboyarova T.V., Vasiliev G.V., Shipova A.A., Golovanova E.V., Shekhovtsov S.V., Zubko K.S. The
mitochondrial genome of Eisenia altaica (Lumbricidae, Annelida). Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(2):93-98. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-10 (in Russian)
Funding: Работа поддержана бюджетным проектом FWNR-2022-0022.

Molecular biology

N.A. Popova, V.P. Nikolin, T.I. Merkulova The new is the old epigenetic paradigm of carcinogenesis
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Abstract
Abstract: For many years, cancer has been regarded as the same universal disease as infectious, metabolic or genetic. Since the recognition of the discovery of the Rous sarcoma virus, the concept of the viral origin of tumors has become widespread. Subsequently, it turned out that cancer diseases are characterized by a high level of genome instability, which is associated with a high frequency of mutations caused by oncogenic viruses or various carcinogenic factors. Mutation theory was the main paradigm explaining the
carcinogenesis caused by DNA mutations. However, many years ago it was assumed that the tumor phenotype may well be formed due to epigenetic changes. Studies conducted in recent years have revealed the importance of epigenetic mechanisms at various stages of cancer development, providing a basis for the recognition of epigenetic dysregulation in cancer as a key factor of malignancy.
Epigenetic changes modify chromatin and mechanisms that affect gene regulation without altering the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms, including a wide range of processes such as DNA methylation, posttranslational modifications of histones and noncoding RNAs, modulate biological events that are crucial for the development of cancer. Many of the signs of cancer – malignant selfrenewal, differentiation blockade, evasion of cell death and tissue invasion – are profoundly influenced by changes in the epigenome.
A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic modification mechanisms disrupted in cancer may be targets in the treatment of oncological diseases.
Key words: oncoviruses; mutational theory; epigenetics; methylation; non-coding RNAs; transposons.
For citation: Popova N.A., Nikolin V.P., Merkulova T.I. The new is the old epigenetic paradigm of carcinogenesis. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(2):99-104. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-11 (in Russian)
Funding: This work was supported by the budget project FWNR-2022-0016.

Plant breeding

Abstract
Abstract: Resistance to fungal pathogens is one of the most important directions of breeding for strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.).
Genetically determined resistance will minimize the use of chemical means of protection and increase the quality of the products.
This study presents the results of molecular screening of strawberry hybrid seedlings for resistance loci to powdery mildew (08 To-f),
anthracnose (Rca2) and red stele root rot (Rpf1) to identify forms with complex resistance to pathogens. In the analyzed strawberry crossing combinations, the number of seedlings combining the resistance loci 08 To-f and Rpf1 varied from 9.3 % (Bylinnaya × Feyyerverk) to 30.3 % (Olimpiyskaya nadezhda × Bylinnaya) with an average number for combinations of 17.2 %. In the cross combination
Bylinnaya × Olimpiyskaya nadezhda, genotype 08 To-f+Rpf1 has seedlings 61-5 and 61-6; in the combination Bylinnaya × Feyyerverk – seedlings 62-6, 62-33, 62-34 and 62-41; in the combination Olimpiyskaya nadezhda × Bylinnaya – hybrids 65-1, 65-8, 65-11, 65-14, 65-16, 65-17, 65-21, 65-22, 65-30 and 65-35; in the combination Privlekatelnaya × Bylinnaya – forms 72-17, 72-27, 72-35, 72-59 and 72-88; in the combination Feyyerverk × Bylinnaya – seedlings 69-5, 69-6, 69-7, 69-8, 69-11, 69-35, 69-36, 69-40 and 69-47. The number of strawberry seedlings with genotype 08 To-f+Rca2 was 18.7 % in the combination Malwina × Tea (hybrids 3/4-2, 3/4-8, 3/4-17, 3/4-23, 3/4-24 and 3/4-31) and 27.5 % in the combination Florence × Faith (hybrids 3/9-3, 3/9-6, 3/9-11, 3/9-22, 3/9-24, 3/9-25, 3/9-28, 3/9-30, 3/9-33, 3/9-34 and 3/9-40). The average number of strawberry hybrids with genotype 08 To-f+Rca2 for the studied combinations was 23.1 %. These strawberry seedlings are promising genetic sources of complex resistance to powdery mildew and red stele root rot, powdery mildew and anthracnose.
Key words: Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.; resistance; powdery mildew; anthracnose; red stele root rot; molecular markers.
For citation: Lyzhin A.S., Luk’yanchuk I.V. Molecular screening of resistance alleles 08 To-f, Rca2 and Rpf1 in strawberry hybrid progeny for identify forms with complex resistance to fungal pathogens. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(2):105-110. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-12 (in Russian)
Abstract
Abstract: The article presents data on the study and use of the Siberian rye gene pool to produce varieties of winter rye, aimed to obtain winter triticale and transgressive forms of winter common wheat that exceed the standard varieties in terms of yield and other economically important traits and properties. As a result of breeding work, competitive varieties of winter rye of two ploidy levels (2n = 14, 2n = 28) have been created, combining in one genotype high winter hardiness, lodging resistance, yield, grain quality, as well
as adaptability to biotic and abiotic stresses. The most promising variety for use in the breeding process under Siberian conditions is the winter rye variety Korotkostebelnaya 69. By transferring it to the tetraploid level, a winter-hardy, productive, lodging-resistant variety Tetra Korotkaya was created, zoned in the West Siberian and East Siberian regions. The use of the Korotkostebelnaya 69 variety in distant hybridization made it possible to obtain winter-hardy short-stem winter triticale varieties Sears 57 and Tsekad 90 with a productivity of over 6.0 t/ha. Based on the triticale breeding line LMK 462, which includes the Korotkostebelnaya 69 rye variety in its pedigree, a winter soft wheat variety, Novosibirskaya 3, with an increased level of winter resistance, was produced.
Key words: breeding; rye; triticale; wheat; cultivars.
For citation: Ermoshkina N.N., Salamatina A.A., Artemova G.V., Musinov K.K., Surnachev A.S., Stepochkin P.I. The unique Siberian gene pool of rye and its use in the breeding of cereals. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(2):111-118. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-13 (in Russian)
Funding: This work was supported by Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, budget
project No. FWNR-2022-0018.
N.V. Trubacheeva, E.A. Salina, V.K. Shumny The use of CMS/Rf system for sunflower hybrid breeding
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Abstract
Abstract: Sunflower is a globally significant oilseed crop due to its ability to grow in different agroecological conditions and soil types,
high oil quality, and protein content. The discoveries of the first cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) source and the identification of corresponding restorer genes  led to changing sunflower production to hybrid breeding for industrial applications. Basic directions in sunflower hybrid breeding include developing high seed and oil yield hybrids resistant to dominant diseases and tolerant to drought.
In sunflower, CMS PET1 is the only CMS cytoplasm worldwide used for hybrid breeding resulting in genetic vulnerability of hybrids to biotic and abiotic stresses. Use of additional CMS/Rf sources would diversify the gene pool of the crop and reduce genetic vulnerability, and the development of molecular markers linked to fertility restoration genes and specific to different types of cytoplasm remains a goal of sunflower breeding. In this paper, we give a review of the genetic studies and breeding techniques that are related to the use of the CMS-Rf system, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility and fertility restoration, and using modern molecular tools in sunflower breeding.
Key words: sunflower; hybrid breeding; cytoplasmic male sterility; fertility restoration genes; molecular markers.
For citation: Trubacheeva N.V., Salina E.A., Shumny V.K., The use of CMS/Rf system for sunflower hybrid breeding. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2024;10(2):119-131. DOI 10.18699/letvjgb-2024-10-14 (in Russian)
Funding: This work was supported by the budget project FWNR 2022-0017.

Results of the Conference

Abstract
Abstract: С 10 по 12 апреля 2024 г. в ФИЦ ИЦиГ СО РАН (г. Новосибирск) прошла 7-я Международная конференция
«Генофонд и селекция растений», посвященная 95-летию академика РАН П.Л. Гончарова (7th International Conference “Genepool and Plant Breeding” dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the birth of Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences P.L.  Goncharov, GPB  2024), в которой приняли участие ученые в области селекции, генетики, молекулярной биологии и IT-технологий из России, Армении, Белоруссии, Казахстана и Таджикистана (более 200  человек). Конференция проведена при финансовой поддержке СибНИИРС – филиала ИЦиГ СО РАН, ИЦиГ СО РАН, Курчатовского геномного центра ИЦиГ СО РАН, а также при спонсорской поддержке ООО «СБТ», ООО «БАРЕНБРУГ», ООО «ДИАЭМ», ООО «ШАНС ТРЕЙД», ООО «ДЕЛЬРУСКОМ».