Contents
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2021 year, V. 7, №1
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Original articles

Abstract
Abstract: The selection and study of the wheat varieties is an important stage in the breeding process, which is necessary to identify the sources of agronomically valuable traits. The article presents the data of a comparative analysis of the ear grain weight and the 1000 grain weight in varieties of spring soft wheat of various groups of ripeness in the ecological conditions of the forest-steppe of the Ob region for the period 2018–2019. Overall, the weather conditions of the studied years were favorable for the formation of the yield in the varieties of soft spring wheat. Abundant precipitation in June 2018 contributed to an increase in the duration of the sprouting–heading period in the set of varieties under consideration, and in 2019, a lack of precipitation and warm weather during the same growing season contributed to the fact that the plants of the studied genotypes entered the heading phase earlier. In general, the duration of the growing season of the studied varieties varied from 71 (early ripening variety Novosibirskaya 16 in 2018) to 104 (medium late variety Velut in 2018) days. There was a high reliable relationship between the duration of the growing season and the temperature regime (r = 0.91–0.94). The grain weight of an ear in the varieties of the studied set varied from 0.83 (Novosibirskaya 16) to 1.55 (Bel) g in 2018, and in 2019 from 0.55 (Novosibirskaya 31) to 1.00 (Obskaya 2) g. Over the years of research, the mass of 1000 grains varied from 26.8 (in the Trizo variety in 2018) to 41.5 (in the Chernyava 13 variety in 2018) g. The mid-early variety Chernyava 13 and the mid-season variety Bel were identified as promising genotypes for use in breeding for high ear productivity and 1000 grain weight.
Key words: variety; spring soft wheat; ear grain weight; 1000 grain weight; vegetation period.
For citation: Ageeva E.V., Leonova I.N., Likhenko I.E., Sovetov V.V. The ear grain weight and the thousand grain weight as productivity traits in varieties of spring bread wheat of different ripening groups in the conditions of the Priob’e steppe. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(1):5-11. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-01 (in Russian)
Abstract
Abstract: Arterial hypertension is a common disease, which reduces the quality of life and leads to fatal cardiovascular complications. The sympathetic adrenal system is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. To date, it is known that stress, together with a hereditary predisposition, is one of the important factors contributing to the development of arterial hypertension in the human population. Using selection for an increase in blood pressure under conditions of mild emotional stress, ISIAH rats that are characterized by a number of morphological and physiological traits typical for patients with essential hypertension were obtained at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk, Russia). The studies point to increased sympathetic adrenal system function in the hypertensive ISIAH line. However, an increase in blood pressure in response to stress stimulation is possible may depend on a genetically determined change in the expression profile of adrenergic receptor genes in the arterial wall. The aim of the work was to study the expression of alpha1A-, alpha1B-, alpha2A-, beta1-, beta2-adrenergic receptor genes in the vascular artery wall of ISIAH rats with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension. Decreased mRNA levels of Adra1A and Adra1B adrenoreceptor genes mediating vasoconstriction in the tail artery in ISIAH rats have been found, which may indicate compensatory changes under conditions of arterial hypertension. In addition, the absence of mRNA expression of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene in the arterial wall of the studied rat strain was shown, which indicates on predominant role the beta2-adrenergic receptors in this vessel.
Key words: alpha1A-adrenergic receptors; alpha1B-adrenergic receptors; alpha2A-adrenergic receptors; beta1-adrenergic receptors; beta2-adrenergic receptors; real-time PCR; arterial vessels; arterial hypertension; ISIAH rats.
For citation: Ryazanova M.A., Markel A.L. Expression of adrenergic receptor genes in the vascular wall of hypertensive ISIAH rats. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(1):12-16. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-02 (in Russian)

Review

N.V. Shatskaya Methods of viroid sequencing (in russian)
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Abstract
Abstract: Viroids are small, single-stranded pathogenic RNA-molecules from 246 to 467 bp, circular, non-encapsulated and they do not code proteins. Viroids penetrate to plants and depend on host enzymes for their replication. They induce structural and physiological changes in host plant that become to diseases. Viroids detection is not so simple problem, and NGS-sequencing can help to solve it. In 2009, NGS technologies began to be applied to several areas of plant virology including virus/viroid genome sequencing, discovery and detection, ecology and epidemiology, replication and transcription. Identification and characterization of known and unknown viroid in infected plants are currently among the most successful applications of these technologies. It is expected that NGS will play very significant role in plant virology.
Key words: next generation sequencing; viroids; pathogens; biosafety.
For citation: Shatskaya N.V. Methods of viroid sequencing. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(1):17-22. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-03 (in Russian)
Abstract
Abstract: Currently, the breeding of the barley malting cultivars is a priority direction of the domestic breeding programs. Since the quality of the raw materials used determine primarily the quality of the beer, the brewing industry makes high demands on such cultivars. One of the main quality characteristics of beer is its haze stability, which determines shelf life of beer. There are two types of turbidity: biological one is resulted from the propagation of microorganisms, and nonbiological (colloidal) one is based on the interaction of proteins and polyphenols of beer with the formation of stable insoluble complexes. Traditional breeding of malting cultivars is aimed at reducing the protein content, however, high-quality cultivars can also be obtained by reducing the content of polyphenolic compounds in grain as well. Here, the data on studies of the main polyphenolic components of colloidal haze of beer proanthocyanidins is summarized. These data represented the basis for breeding of malting proanthocyanidin-free cultivars. The world experience implemented in practice can be useful for the development of domestic breeding programs aimed at creating high-quality malting barley cultivars.
Key words: condense tannins; induced mutagenesis; beer; flavonoids; polyphenols.
For citation: Shoeva O.Yu. The world experience of malting barley cultivars breeding based on proanthocyanidin-free mutants. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(1):23-33. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-04 (in Russian)

Methods

Abstract
Abstract: The development of next-gen DNA sequencing methods has become one of the main drivers of progress in biological research in recent years. These methods made it possible to actively use DNA barcoding to solve a wide range of biological problems. The key step for working with barcoded DNA molecules is the creation of a library of barcoded plasmids. This protocol is devoted to the description of such a technique using the Gibson cloning approach. Gibson cloning allows the creation of complex genetic constructs from a large number of fragments. The method allows the use of oligonucleotides with degenerate positions, which is convenient for creating barcoded libraries. The application of the described technique allows one to obtain libraries with high diversity (more than 105) barcoded molecules. The article describes the main stages of the process of creating a barcoded library. In particular, the principles of the design of barcoded oligonucleotides are discussed. We also feature technical details of assembling libraries using the Gibson method. A protocol for growing bacterial clones, isolation of plasmid DNA and its purification from empty vectors using treatment of the plasmid DNA preparation with plasmid-safe nuclease is described. An important stage in the work is the characterization of the obtained library and the assessment of the diversity of barcoded molecules in the library. We describe the preparation of the library for sequencing on the Illumina platform, and we present an algorithm for computational analysis of sequencing data to assess the real diversity of barcoded molecules. Library obtained by such method could be used in studying individual DNA molecules. Library from the current research will be used for studying recombination in early mouse embryos.
Key words: DNA barcoding; plasmid library; Gibson cloning.
For citation: Smirnov A.V., Yunusova A.M., Muravyova А.A., Valeev E.S., Fishman V.S., Battulin N.R. Creation of barcoded plasmids libraries using the Gibson cloning method. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(1):34-45. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-05 (in Russian)

Memories

Abstract
For citation: Goncharov N.P., Morgunov A.I., Shamanin V.P., Tsygankov V.I., Yessimbekova M.A., Loskutov I.G., Guzman C., Shewry P.R., El Solh M. In memory of professor Aigul I. Abugalieva (1959–2020). Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2021;7(1):46-65. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ2021-7-06 (in Russian)