Contents
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2023 year, V. 9, №2
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Plant cytogenetics

Abstract
Abstract: The introduction of alleles of improved fiber quality from Gossypium barbadense L. into varieties of widely cultivated cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. requires interspecific introgression, which involves the use of lines with the substitution of individual chromosomes. In this work, when creating such lines, a tendency was found to reduce the crossing, as well as the setting and germination of hybrid seeds with an increase in the number of backcrosses, the elucidation of the reasons for which is of great interest for research. A study of the crossing of 12 monosomic and one monotelosomal line of cotton G. hirsutum with aneuploid BC1F1 hybrids found differences in crossability (from 7.14 to 100 %), with eight variants showing an increase in BC2F1 compared to BC1F1 hybrids, while in five variants – a decrease (up to 7.14 %). In BC3F1 hybrids, a significant decrease in crossability was observed in all variants (from 3.85 to 33.33 %), except for one line. In general, over the course of four generations, there was a linear decrease in crossing in two backcross variants (with lines Mo17 and Telo21). The setting of hybrid seeds also differed significantly in BC2F1, where in nine variants there was a decrease in the number of seeds (from 8.43 ± 2.16 to 64.35 ± 4.47 %), and in four variants an increase compared to BC1F1 hybrids. In BC3F1 hybrids, on the contrary, an increase in seed setting was observed in eight variants, while in three variants there was a significant decrease (from 7.14 ± 3.97 to 41.46 ± 7.69 %). The alternation of high and low rates of crossing and setting was explained by interspecies features, the specificity of deficiencies, and the genetic conditionality of such a decrease in the original monosomics. The study of the germination of backcross seeds BC2F1 revealed its decrease in six variants of crosses (from 30.00 to 87.71 %), while in seven other variants it increased compared to BC1F1 hybrids. Hybrids BC3F1 were characterized by a decrease in seed germination in five variants (from 44.00 to 82.35 %) and an increase in six. The decrease in germination was due to the low germination of seeds with nullisomy compared to disomic siblings, which led to a delay in the overall germination rate. The study of backcross families with a sufficient number of hybrids and high seed germination is shown to be promising in order to identify monosomic genotypes with foreign substitution of G. barbadense chromosomes during further backcrossing.
Key words: backcrossing; crossing; seed setting; seed germination; cotton; G. hirsutum L.; G. barbadense L.
For citation: Sanamyan M.F., Bobohujayev Sh.U., Silkova O.G. Peculiarities of backcrossing of monosomic lines of cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. with monosomic BC1F1 and BC2F1 hybrids (Gossypium hirsutum L. // Gossypium barbadense L.). Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(2):43-53. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-08 (in Russian)
Acknowledgments: The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Innovation of the Republic of Uzbekistan within the framework of the F-OT-2021-155 project.

Genetics of plant development

Abstract
Abstract: An overview of scales for assessing the growth and development of cereals is presented. Scales are highlighted, that describe the external development of plants (the Fickes, Zadoks, Haun, BBCH phenological scales) and those that describe the development of the apical meristem. An overview of the twelve stages of organogenesis is presented separately, and the contribution of these stages to the formation of productivity elements is also indicated. A comparison of wheat growth and development scales is given and how they relate to each other is shown.
Key words: wheat; growth and development of cereals; phenological phases; Feekes scale; Haun scale; Zadoks scale; BBCH scale; stages of organogenesis; development of the apex; pistil morphogenesis; grain yield.
For citation: Efremova T.T., Chumanova E.V. Stages of growth and development of wheat and their importance in the formation of productivity elements. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(2):54-80. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-09 (in Russian)
Acknowledgments: The work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 22-26-0085.

Plant breeding

P.I. Stepochkin, N.N. Ermoshkina Study of facultative forms of Triticale after autumn and spring planting
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Abstract
Abstract: Facultative forms of triticale can give offspring both after autumn and after spring sowing. The question of what type of sowing it is more expedient to grow them is being solved experimentally. The purpose of this work is to identify under which method of sowing of facultative triticale forms they better realize positive properties and productivity potential in the conditions of the Novosibirsk region. Two triticale forms made from two winter varieties and four forms made from spring collection accessions were studied in 2020 and 2021 in the experiments of autumn and spring sowing according to the method of field experiments. Triticale Tsekad 90/5 and Sears 57/2/4, made from winter varieties, showed long vegetative period and high overwintering (97.5–100 %), in contrast to four forms made from spring collection accessions – Ukro, Kvadro, Uliana and Lotas. Their idex of winter survival varies from 37.5 (Ukro) to 80 (Lotas) %. The indexes of volume grain weight, the mass of 1000 kernels, the length of the culm, the number of spikelets increased, but the indexes of the number of kernels, the length of spike decreased after autumn sowing compared to spring one in all studied forms (except for Ukro k-3644). The number of productive stems of plants of three triticale forms: Tsekad 90/5, Sirs 57/2/4 and Kvadro k-4073 after autumn sowing and overwintering was significantly higher than that after spring sowing. The plants of the other three forms on the contrary had more calms after spring sowing. Grain productivity of Tsekad 90/5 and Sears 57/2/4 was significantly higher after autumn sowing than one after spring sowing. Grain productivity index was higher after spring sowing than after autumn sowing of four forms made from spring collection accessions Thus, the facultative forms of triticale made from winter varieties show the best indexes of selection valuable traits after autumn sowing, but the facultative forms made from spring collection triticale lines show the best indexes of these traits after spring sowing.
Key words: facultative form; triticale; autumn, spring sowing; overwintering; trait.
For citation: Stepochkin P.I., Ermoshkina N.N. Study of facultative forms of Triticale after autumn and spring planting. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(2):81-85. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-10 (in Russian)
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the budget project of IGG SB RAS FWNR-2022-0018 in part of field trial and experimental measurements
Abstract
Abstract: To accelerate breeding new varieties of bread wheat that accumulate anthocyanins in grain, we have previously developed intragenic DNA markers to the regulatory genes Pp and Ba controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in pericap and aleurone layer of grain, respectively. In the current work these markers together with the linked microsatellite markers were tested in creation of bread wheat lines, accumulating anthocyanins in the pericarp, aleurone, and in both of these grain layers simultaneously, based on variety Element 22 and breeding line BW49880. The isogenic lines with colored grains created earlier on the genetic background of variety Saratovskaya 29 were used as donors of anthocyanin pigmentation. The total anthocyanin content in whole grain flour extracts of fifteen lines, differing in the color of the grain, was estimated. This index depended on the genotype, increasing in the series: red-grain < purple grain < blue-grain < black-grain; with the exception of purple-grain line obtained based on BW49880 (accumulating Zn at the same time) and did not differ significantly from the black-grain lines. The paper discusses promising donors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes for the creation of new anthocyanin-rich wheat varieties. The usage of the obtained lines as promising anthocyanin biosynthesis gene donors for creating new anthocyanin-rich wheat varieties is discussed. Key words: spring bread wheat; anthocyanins; breeding; molecular markers.
For citation: Gordeeva E.I., Shoeva O.Y., Shamanin V.P., Khlestkina E.K. The molecular markers applying in breeding of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines with different anthocyanin coloration of the grains. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(2):86-99. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-11 (in Russian)

Molecular biology

V.P. Nikolin, N.A. Popova The role of extracellular nucleic acids in regeneration processes
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Abstract
Abstract: The review article presents the results of studies indicating the participation of the extracellular nucleic acids in the regeneration of damaged tissue. Nucleic acids released from damaged cells as alarmins, being ligands for endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs), activate them and, through a TLR-dependent mechanism, induce sterile inflammation, which is necessary to repair damage. Dysregulation of inflammatory can lead to the development of various pathologies. The critical is the transition from the phase of inflammation to the phase of proliferation. This transition is complex and clearly regulated, but the subtleties of regulation are not fully understood.
Key words: extracellular nucleic acids; TLRs; DAMPs; sterile inflammation; tissue regeneration.
For citation: Nikolin V.P., Popova N.A. The role of extracellular nucleic acids in regeneration processes. Pisma v Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Letters to Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2023;9(2):100-105. DOI 10.18699/LettersVJ-2023-9-12 (in Russian)
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the budget project FWNR-2022-0016.